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start [2014/02/24 22:10]
j.knol_effost.org
start [2015/02/18 17:02] (current)
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-**1. The essentials of Food Science and Technology**+====== ​Food Science and Technology ​====== 
 +Food Science and Technology ​ is a multidisciplinary linkage of the sciences of microbiology,​ chemistry, engineering and nutrition to ensure the production of safe and nutritious food of adequate quantity and quality to feed the world’s population. Various publications refine and expand this definition, sometimes keeping science and technology together, sometimes separating them. Definitions can be as short as ‘the application of scientific principles to create and maintain a wholesome food supply’ (UCDavis) to the separate definitions such as those below (Institute of Food Technologists):​
  
-**2. The major constituents ​of food**+  ​Food Science: Food science draws from many disciplines such as biology, chemical engineering,​ and biochemistry in an attempt to better understand food processes and ultimately improve food products for the general publicAs the stewards ​of the field, ​food scientists study the physical, microbiological,​ and chemical [[food properties|food properties]]. By applying their findings, they are responsible for developing the safe, nutritious foods and innovative packaging that line supermarket shelves everywhere.
  
-2.1. Proteins+  * Food Technology: The food you consume on a daily basis is the result of extensive food research, a systematic investigation into a variety of foods’ properties and compositionsAfter the initial stages of research and development comes the mass production of food products using principles of food technology. All of these interrelated fields contribute to the food industry, dealing with food processing and [[food preservation|food preservation]] (which have a [[historical drivers for the development of food processing|long history]]) ​
  
-2.1.1. Amino acids and peptides +This wiki will not attempt to keep food science ​and food technology separate as they must almost always be considered together to give the reader the complete picture. The purpose ​of this wiki is to outline the main aspects ​of the combination ​of all the disparate but interlinked sciences that contribute to the understanding ​of our food and food products ​and to understand the technology that allows their production in adequate ​and sustainable quantitiesAs a web based documentthere is of course no restriction ​on readership but it is not written for food scientists or food technologistsInstead it is written for consumer scientists ​and others from the various human sciences disciplines who often provide the linkage between the physical scientists ​and the end userConsequently,​ no section will include any of the mathematical theory underlying that section but will be written in a style that it is hoped will be of use to the target audience.
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-2.1.2. Protein structure and denaturation +
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-2.1.3. Enzymes +
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-2.2. Carbohydrates +
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-2.2.1. Sugars +
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-2.2.2. Oligosaccharides +
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-2.2.3. Polysaccharides:​ Starches, Pectins, Gums +
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-2.3. Fats and oils +
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-2.3.1. Saturated and unsaturated fats +
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-2.3.2. Emulsifiers +
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-2.4. Water +
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-2.4.1. Water activity +
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-2.5. Vitamins and other minor constituents +
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-2.5.1. Vitamins +
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-2.5.2. Minerals +
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-2.5.3. Aromas +
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-2.5.4. Food additives +
- +
-**3. Food Structures** +
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-3.1. Gasses,​ Liquids, Solids +
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-3.2. Dispersed systems +
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-3.3. Interaction in food +
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-3.4. Specific systems: Gels, Fats and Oils, Emulsions and foam, Encapsulation systems +
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-**4. The spoilage ​of foods** +
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-4.1. Bacterial and fungal spoilage +
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-4.2. Enzymatic spoilage +
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-4.3. Oxidation +
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-5. Postharvest handling ​of food materials +
-5.1. How food materials deteriorate +
-5.1.1. Respiration +
-5.1.2. Enzymatic spoilage  +
-5.2. Storage ​of raw food materials +
-5.3. Cleaning,​ sorting, grading +
-5.4. Blanching and other means of enzyme inactivation +
- +
-6. Food Preservation +
-6.1. The historical drivers for the development ​of food processing +
-6.2. Preservation by heat +
-6.2.1. Reaction Kinetics ​and Temperature Dependence +
-6.2.2. Heat Exchangers +
-6.2.3. Heat Processing Methods +
-6.2.4. Sterilization +
-6.2.5. Pasteurisation +
-6.2.6. Packaging +
-6.3. Preservation by temperature reduction +
-6.3.1. Refrigeration (incl. kinetics ​and quality) +
-6.3.2. Freezing +
-6.3.2.1. The mechanisms of preservation by freezing  +
-6.3.2.2. Blast freezing +
-6.3.2.3. Plate freezing +
-6.3.2.4. Cryogenic freezing +
-6.4. Dehydration +
-6.4.1. Evaporation ​and concentration +
-6.4.2. Drying mechanisms +
-6.4.3. Tunnel drying +
-6.4.4. Spray drying (incl. evaporation) +
-6.4.5. Freeze drying +
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-7. Food Processing +
-7.1. BAKINGEXTRUSION, FRYING +
-7.1.1. Baking +
-7.1.2. Extrusion +
-7.1.3. Frying +
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-8. More recent methods ​of food preservation +
-8.1. Irradiation +
-8.1.1. Principles and effects ​on food properties +
-8.1.2. Methods +
-8.1.3. Safety  +
-8.2. High Pressure Processing +
-8.2.1. Microbiology and Enzyme Inactivation +
-8.2.2. Effects on food functional properties +
-8.2.3. Equipment +
-8.3. Pulsed electric field +
-8.4. Microwave heating +
-8.5. Radio frequency Heating +
-8.6. Ohmic heating +
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-9. Other techniques used in food processing +
-9.1. Size reduction +
-9.1.1. Milling +
-9.1.2. Homogenisation +
-9.2. Reforming +
-9.2.1. Emulsification +
-9.2.2. Mixing +
-9.3. Separation techniques +
-9.3.1. Crystallisation +
-9.3.2. Membrane processing +
-9.3.2.1. Ultrafiltration +
-9.3.2.2. Reverse Osmosis +
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-10. Important chemical reactions in food +
-10.1. Maillard reaction +
-10.2. Caramelisation +
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-11. Principles of Nutrition +
-11.1. Digestion ​and absorption of nutrients +
-11.1.1. Carbohydrates +
-11.1.2. Proteins +
-11.1.3. Fats +
-11.1.4. Fibers +
-11.2. Food allergens ​and intolerances +
-11.3. Functional ingredients +
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-12. Food Properties +
-12.1. Colour +
-12.2. Rheology +
-12.2.1. Mechanical properties +
-12.2.2. Types ​of rheological deformations and responses +
-12.2.3. Fracture behaviour +
-12.2.4. Sensory perception +
-12.3. Chemical analysis +
-12.4. Sensory properties +
-12.4.1. Taste +
-12.4.2. Smell+
start.1393276248.txt.gz · Last modified: 2015/02/18 17:01 (external edit)