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The essentials of Food Science and Technology

1. Food Preservation

1.1 The historical drivers for the development of food processing

Major drivers for process development:

  • Prehistory: Accidental discovery, for example, Cheese making often quoted as the earliest process and was discovered accidely. Most consider that cheese was first made in the Middle East. The earliest type was a form of sour milk. Legend has it that cheese was 'discovered' by an Arab nomad who filled a saddlebag with milk. After several hours riding he discovered that the milk had separated what we now know as curds and whey. The saddlebag, made from the stomach of a young animal, contained the enzyme, rennin, with coagulation caused by the rennin, the hot sun and the motions of the horse.
  • Until the late 20th century: Military needs (a secure supply of preserved foods in suitable form for the army). For example, canning was developed in 1809 by Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) who won the prize of 12,000FFr offered by Napoleon for developing a practical method of food preservation. The House of Appert became the first commercial cannery in the world, many years before Louis Pasteur proved that heat killed bacteria. His work was probably the first driven by ‘applied’ research interests when in the 1860s Pasteur was asked to help resolve some of the problems of the French wine industry, particularly that of spoilage. He found that heating the wine gently (120°F) to kill the lactic acid bacteria and let the wine age. He also suggested that greater cleanliness was needed to eliminate bacteria; this could be done with heat. Military needs also drove the development of food drying. While sun drying has been known for 4000 years, industrial drying much more recent. In 1917 the US Dept. of Agriculture produced a booklet on drying foods in the home using methods that would nowadays be regarded as probably unsafe. However, during World War 1 & 2, military research led to the development of many foods dried for military use. In the same period, spray drying and freeze drying was developed. More recently, military research led to leading to the development of packaging such as retortable pouches and trays for use in military field kitchens but now seen on supermarket shelves.
  • In the mid to late 20th century space exploration became a major driver. This was mainly towards dehydration methods but also rapid heating methods. More emphasis was placed on food weight, preservation and rapid heating with methods such as ohmic and pulsed electric field developed in the 1960/70s but this was too early for commercial uptake.
  • Simultaneously, some consumer demands started to evolve, especially in more technologically developed societies. For example, industrial freezing was developed by Clarence Birdseye in 1923 with an investment of $7. He later sold the patents in 1929 for $22 million. The first quick-frozen vegetables, fruits, seafoods and meat were sold to the public in 1930 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Currently consumer demands for convenience, low cost and safety are driving food technology developments. A major scientific problem is the inherently conflicting demands of the consumer where more convenience (often unadmitted), less processing, fresher foods, safer foods, healthier diets, greater food functionality are demanded. The conflict arises in that greater convenience and safety normally implies a greater processing need and takes the products further away from the fresh product. In addition, greater knowledge and communication is demanded by the consumer rather than just by marketing needs as had hitherto been the case.

1.2 Preservation by heat

1.2.1 Heat Exchangers

Since food is seldom exposed directly to the primary source of heat (except in gas-fired ovens or in wood burning bread and pizza ovens) some form of heat exchanger is required. In the food industry, the main sources of heat are steam (produced in boilers) and hot air (heated by electricity, or indirectly by heat exchangers from combustion gases). Heat exchangers were mainly developed for the chemical industry rather than the food industry but were adapted for the food industry, mainly by replacing the mild steel construction by stainless steel a material that is easier to clean and is more acceptable as a food contact material. The simplest type of heat exchanger is in the form of two concentric tubes with the material being heated flowing through the central tube and the heating material flowing through the annular space formed between the two tubes. Of course, heat exchangers are therefore limited to liquid foods since they must flow but have been developed into forms that can accommodate even very viscous liquids or liquids containing suspended solids. Capacity limitations ensured that the concentric tube system never move beyond a laboratory system and industrial versions were developed as the shell and tube system (where a large number of tubes through which the fluid could flow, were bundled into a single cylindrical shell through which the heating mediium could flow. That such a system never became popular in food factories is due more to hygiene and cleaning difficulties than to efficiency. The cleaning problem was overcome y the development of the plate heat exchanger. In this system a large number of stainless steel rectangular plates are arranged vertically with a rubber gasket around the edge of each plate effectively forming a narrow space between each pair of plates. An ingenious system of gasket encased entrance and exit holds allows the food liquid to be pumper between every second pair of plates with the heating medium pumped between the intervening plates. This system is used almost universally for both pasteurisation and sterilization in the liquid food industry, especially for milk and fruit juices.

1.2.2 Sterilization

The initial form of sterilization as developed by Appert (see History), took place in a sealed metal can or glass jar. The container of food is heated to approximately 120C and held at that temperature for the time required to inactivate the most heat resistant bacterial spores. A holding time of several seconds at this temperature may be sufficient depending on the nature of the bacteria present. However, the holding time required is dependent on the temperature and increases dramatically as the temperature falls. At 100C, the holding time could be several hours. It is easy to see that in the early days of canning development when the only heating possibility was immersion of the cans in boiling water, the very long heating and holding times at the 100C boiling water temperature would result in severe thermal damage to the product and its internal structure. Boiling vegetables at 100C for a few hours is more likely to result in a disintegrated vegetable puree! It took the development of superheated steam boilers (a side-effect of railway developments) in the mid 1800’s to provide higer heating temperatures and more realistic heating times. More recently, it has been possible to sterilize liquid foods using plate heat exchangers using two different mechanisms. In one, the indirect heating method, the liquid (very often milk) is heated to approximately 120C and the passes through a holding tube where the length of time it takes to traverse the tube (termed the holding time) is equal to or in excess of the time required to inactivate all the bacteria present at that temperature. The sterile liquid is then cooled by first using it as the heat source for the cold incoming raw material to the heat exchanger, hereby improving the energy efficiency of the process. Further heat exchangers using cold water and chilled water lower the temperature still further. Finally, the cold sterile liquid needs to be packaged aseptically to ensure it is not recontaminated during storage, distribution and sale. The second method, the direct method, uses many of the features of the indirect method except that the final heating to approximately 20C is achieved not in a plate heat exchanger but by the direct injection of superheated culinary grade steam into the product. This instantaneously raises the food liquid to sterilization temperatures. Regulations in many countries demand that any steam that condenses in the food liquid and therefore dilutes it, must be subsequently removed. This is achieved by flash evaporation, a process where the hot sterile liquid food is sprayed into a vacuum chamber where it instantly boils and the previously condensed is evaporated.

start.1393523664.txt.gz · Last modified: 2015/02/18 17:01 (external edit)